| Moto 1.0 PWM A/D Mode |
Last Modified: 2006-08-17
About PWM A/D Mode
In PWM-A/D Mode, the Moto Module drives a motor or other high-current device with variable speed (using PWM ) and in both directions. In addition, the Moto application displays the A/D input, which can be used for diagnosing and understanding how the A/D input relates to the output speed. This type of speed control is open-looped; that is, no feedback from the driven device is fed back into the control system. This mode is great for testing out a new motor or H-Bridge and configuring and verifying the Back-EMF mode of operation.
The Moto 1.0 Application in PWM A/D Mode
You can manipulate nine variables in PWM A/D Mode:
This mode affects the duty cycle of the PWM signal, which effectively varies the voltage to the motor and varies the speed. The duty cycle is set using the throttle slider. The center point of the slider is neutral. Sliding the set point above the center point moves the motor in one direction; sliding it below the center point moves the motor the other direction. The stop button returns the throttle to the neutral position and stops the motor.
The input offset is added to the encoder input to allow a centering offset adjustment. With A/D providing the input in this mode, this value is used to set the neutral position. For the motion control algorithms to work properly, you should adjust this value so that the A/D reading is as close to zero as possible when the set point slider is in the neutral position (PWM off). The value will then rise above zero in one direction of rotation and fall below zero in the other direction.
This setting can vary between 0 and 32767 and puts a limit on the maximum PWM output allowed. You can use this value to:
The default for this value is no limit or 32767 (the PWM maximum).
The period is how many timer increments (0.1 ms) pass between A/D measurements. This A/D measurement represents a velocity value since the back-EMF voltage is proportional to motor velocity. The range of the values depend on the motor itself and the motor supply voltage.
Latency refers to how many time increments (0.1 ms) should be used to float the motor windings before taking the Back-EMF measurement at the end of each period. Because the A/D reading takes some time, this latency can usually be short, typically between 1 and 5 increments. If this latency is too large, the motor starts to slow down before the reading is taken.
This value represents the PWM frequency in Hz. The default is 39,062 Hz, which is a reasonable starting point. To get maximum efficiency from your system, we recommend a frequency above 20 kHz. This value is out of the audible range (for humans) so it also provides quiet motor operation. When entering a new PWM frequency, you may not get the exact value you entered. The controller generates a fixed number of different PWM frequencies and the program must select a frequency that is the closest match.
Checking this box inverts the A/D input. This enables you to match the signs of the PWM output and A/D input. A positive output should produce a positive input and a negative output should produce a negative input. If the output and input have opposite signs, the motion control algorithms agressively seek the farthest position from the set point, rather than trying to settle into it.
Checking this box inverts the PWM output signal. This reverses the motor direction. You may want to reverse a motor when using two motors on a differential-drive robot so that positive PWM values mean forward motion for both motors.
Enable this feature if the brake needs to be applied in the H-Bridge you are using to "float" the motor for a Back-EMF reading. The Acroname 3A Back-EMF Bridge requires this check for proper operation in Back-EMF modes.
The basic logic flow of the PWM A/D Mode of operation.
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